While the Trump Administrations primary environmental agenda has been focused on deregulation, one area EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt has prioritized is Superfund (i.e. CERCLA). Superfund is meant to investigate and cleanup the dirtiest sites in the country. However, its long and complicated investigation, remedy selection and cleanup implementation processes have slowed cleanups to a crawl. It is certainly a program much in need of an overhaul.
Administrator Pruitt created a task force to provide recommendations for improvement of the Superfund program. The Administrator stated his goal was to "restore the Superfund program to its rightful place at the center of the agency’s core mission."
The task force was given five goals:
- Expedite cleanup and remediation;
- Reinvigorate cleanup and reuse efforts by PRPs;
- Encourage private investment to facilitate cleanup and reuse;
- Promoting redevelopment and community revitalization; and
- Engage with partners and stakeholders.
Ideas were evaluated in each of these areas. The Administrator notes that some of the 42 strategies recommended will take time, including rule changes. However, he identified strategies that he has directed the task force to immediately implement, including::
- Take immediate action at sites where the risk to human health are not fully controlled;
- Use interim or removal actions more frequently to address immediate risks;
- Prioritize sites for Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) that require immediate action;
- Identify contaminated sediment or complex groundwater sites where adaptive management can be implemented;
- Evaluate redevelopment potential for NPL sites;
- Track remedy selection in real time with Superfund Enterprise Management Systems;
- Focus resources on NPL sites with most reuse potential;
- Identify sites for PRP-lead cleanup to spur redevelopment;
- Submit the total indirect costs charged to PRPs for 2016 and 2017
- Encourage PRPs to work with end users to voluntarily perform assessment and cleanup to spur redevelopment;
- Use purchase agreements for potential Bona Fide Prospective Purchasers outlining their actions necessary to preserve their BFPP status;
- Use unilateral orders against recalcitrant PRPs to discourage proactive negotiations of response actions; and
- Maximize deletions and partial deletions of sites that have been cleaned up.
For the task force’s full report click here.
What can we learn from the List of Priority Items?
The most immediate take away is that sites that present vapor intrusion risks to on-site or adjacent property owners will be a priority. In the last five years, vapor intrusion has become a major focus of both U.S. EPA and State EPA’s.
The vapor intrusion pathway is often seen as the most immediate and direct public health threat presented by sites. Therefore, it is logical to assume that and Superfund sites that present vapor intrusion risks will be prioritized. Based on the strategies outlined above, it is very likely that we will see an increase in the use of unilateral enforcement by the EPA Region’s to address vapor intrusion risks.
Slow Moving Sites
The task force has targeted sites that have taken "far too long to remediate." The task force will establish a "Administrator’s Top Ten List" that will get weekly attention. Sites that have been on the NPL for five years or longer without "significant movement" will be reviewed.
Unfortunately, without a major overhaul to the National Contingency Program (NCP) which governs Superfund, the report and recommendations are highly unlikely to result in significant acceleration of cleanups.
Sites with Redevelopment Potential
Several of the Administrator’s recommendations focus on targeting sites with redevelopment potential. For these sites it is possible that the Agency will be more flexible to voluntary cleanup programs that could put land back into productive use more quickly. Following the traditional long and drawn out investigation, remedy selection and implementation will not put property back into productive use quickly.
EPA has shown greater flexibility toward accepting state brownfield voluntary cleanup programs. The focus on redevelopment by the task force provides an opening to PRPs and developers to, perhaps, leverage greater acceptance of these state voluntary brownfield cleanup programs. In reality, leveraging state voluntary cleanup programs may be best opportunity to accelerate cleanup at Superfund sites.