Developments that have small impacts to wetlands (typically around 1/2 acre or less) or streams (typically around 300 feet or less) have been able to qualify for expedited permitting known as Nationwide Permits (NWP). Projects with greater impacts must obtain individual wetland or stream permits known as a 404 Army Corps Permit and 401 Ohio EPA Water Quality Certification (click here for Basics of Wetland Permitting).
Most developers try to arrange their development projects to stay under NWP thresholds if at all possible due to the time and cost savings associated with expedited permitting, which include:
- Time Savings- NWP time frame 3-6 months versus 12-18 months for individual 404/401
- Costs Savings- Permitting preparation range can be from $8,000 to $15,000 or more in cost savings just in permit preparation costs
The process for developing NWPs starts with the Army Corps of Engineers proposing NWP for the entire country under its 404 Clean Water Act authority. Each individual state has the option of placing restrictions on usage of the NWPs under its 401 Clean Water Act authority. The NWPs once finalized are effective for five years.
On March 17, 2017, Ohio EPA finalized its 401 water quality certification for the 2017 NWP. The 2017 new NWPs are effective from March 19, 2017 through March 18, 2022.
Under the new 401 water quality certification, Ohio EPA has placed significant limits on the use of the expedited permits for impacts to high quality streams in Ohio. The Agency has developed a color coded map that designates areas into three categories:
- Ineligible Areas (Purple)- Any impacts to streams in these areas are ineligible for coverage under NWP. Any project with stream impacts in these areas must pursue an individual 404/401 permit.
- Possibly Eligible Area (Yellow)- Any impacts to streams in these areas require additional work before an applicant will be eligible for a NWP. The applicant must:
- Take pH values
- Perform a habitat assessment- Qualitative Assessment Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) or Headwater Habitat Evaluation Index (HHEI) assessment of the stream.
- Eligible Areas (No color code)- any proposed impact to streams within the project area are eligible for NWP coverage.
In Northeast Ohio, the much of the Rocky and Cuyahoga River watersheds are color coded purple (ineligible for NWPs). These new restrictions will have significant consequences for developers and property owners throughout Ohio.